What do they consist of and what symptoms do they produce?

The macula is the central area of ​​the retina where the point of greatest visual acuity is located. Epiretinal membranes are generated by the growth of an abnormal tissue on the macular surface. This membrane generates a traction that ends up deforming the surface of the retina. In advanced cases the patient perceives distortion of the images in the central vision.

Macular holes occur due to anteroposterior or tangential traction on the retinal surface. This generates a break in the center of the retina. The main symptom is the perception of a scotoma or central black spot fixed in the vision.

Do I have to have surgery of my macular problem?

Not all epiretinal membranes need intervention. They have a surgical indication when they reduce visual acuity significantly or produce metamorphopsia (distorted vision of objects).

Macular holes, on the other side, must be intervened early since the sooner they are operated, the better the anatomical and functional result of the eye.

What does the surgery consist of?

Both epiretinal membranes and macular holes are intervened using the vitrectomy technique. It consists of removing the vitreous gel, dyeing the membranes that have generated the pathology with special dyes and remove them with the help of very fine tweezers. In the case of macular holes, the ophthalmologist generally leaves gas at the end of the operation, so it is very important to follow the recommendations on the indicated position of the head, usually upside down, during a period ranging from 2 to 5 days.

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    What is a retinal detachment?

    The retina is a neurological tissue that covers the eye inside and is responsible for capturing the images and transmitting them to the brain through the optic nerve for processing. A retinal detachment consists in the separation of this layer from the wall of the eye.

    What are the alarm symptoms of a retinal detachment, can it be prevented?

    If you perceive in the field of vision myosopsies or “flies” accompanied by flashing lights, you should consult an ophthalmologist, as these are the main symptoms of a retinal detachment. The vitreous gel, when detached, pulls from the retina, causing tears or holes. If these lesions are detected early they can be treated with laser, however if the retinal detachment progresses the only option will be to resort to surgery.

    Can a retinal detachment be operated?

    Retinal detachments can be intervened by different techniques, external or scleral, using silicone rings that are sutured to the wall of the eye and vitrectomy. Sometimes they combine both. Generally, at the end of the operation, the ophthalmologist leaves gas inside the eye to keep the retina in place while the laser heals so it is very important to maintain the head position indicated by the doctor the days after the intervention. It should also be taken into account that it is contraindicated to fly while your eye is full of gas, because it could expand and cause a sharp increase in eye pressure.

    Desprendimiento de retina secundario a agujero macular

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